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European countries mainly: physics, astronomy, astrophysics, mathematics,
also chemistry, medical science, technology, explorers.

NP-Ph = Nobel Prize in Physics
NP-Ch = Nobel Prize in Chemistry
NP-PM = Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicin

Biographical details added from en.wikipedia.org

Institutions, Events

Astronomy

Index by Year of Birth
 


Alphabetical Index:

A   B  C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N

O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z



Avogadro, Amedeo (1776 - 1856)

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Babbage, Charles (1791 - 1871)

Bacon, Francis (1561 - 1626)

Baeyer, Adolf von (1835 - 1871)  NP-Ch 1905

Banach, Stefan (1892 - 1945)

Barany, Robert (1876 - 1936) NP-PM 1914

Bardeen, John (1908 - 1991) NP-Ph 1956, 1972

Barkhausen, Heinrich (1881 - 1956)

Barkla, Charles Glover (1877 - 1944) NP-Ph 1917

Becquerel, Henri (1852 - 1908) NP-Ph

Bednorz, Georg (1950) NP-Ph 1987

Behaim, Martin (1459 - 1507)

Behring, Emil von (1854 - 1917) NP-PM 1901

Bell, Alexander Graham (1847 - 1922)

Bering, Vitus (1681 - 1741)

Belin, Édouard (1876 - 1963)

Bernoulli, Jakob (1654 - 1705)

Berthollet, Claude Louis (1748-1822)

Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (1784 - 1846)

Bethe, Hans (1906 - 2005) NP-Ph 1967

Blériot, Louis (1872 - 1936)

Bloch, Felix (1905 - 1983) NP-Ph 1952

Blondel, André-Eugène (1863 - 1938)

Boerhaave, Herman (1668 - 1738)

Born, Max (1882 - 1970) NP-Ph 1954

Boscovich, Roger Joseph (1711 - 1787)

Bothe, Walter (1891 - 1957) NP-Ph 1954

Boulvin, Jules (1855 - 1920)

Boyle, Robert (1627 - 1692)

Bragg, William Henry (1862 - 1942) NP-Ph 1915

Bragg, William Lawrence (1890 - 1942) NP-Ph 1915

Brahe, Tycho (1546 - 1601)

Branly, Édouard (1844 - 1940)

Brattain, Walter (1902 - 1987) NP-Ph 1956

Braun, Ferdinand (1850-1918) NP-Ph 1909

Braun, Wernher von (1912 - 1977)

Bredikhin, Fyodor (1831 - 1904)

Bridgman, Percy Williams (1882 - 1961) NP-Ph 1946

Bruno, Giordano (1548 - 1600)

Broglie, Louis de (1892 - 1987) NP-Ph 1929

Bürgi, Jost (1552 - 1632)

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Cabral, Pedro Alvares (1668/9 - 1520)

Carnot, Sadi (1796 - 1832)

Cauchy, Augustin-Louis (1789 - 1857)

Celsius, Anders (1701 - 1744)

Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1910 - 1995) NP-Ph 1983

Chardin, Teilhard de (1881 - 1955)

Charpak, Georges (1924 - 2010) NP-Ph 1992

Claude, Albert (1899 - 1983) NP-PM 1974

Clavius, Christopherus (1538 - 1612)

Collins, Michael (1930)

Columbus, Christopher (1451 - 1506)

de la Condamine, Charles Marie (1701 - 1774)

Cori, Gerty (1896 - 1957) NP-PM 1947

Coulomb, Charles Augustin de (1736 - 1806)

Curie, Marie (1867 - 1934) NP-Ph 1903, NP-Ch 1911

Cusanus, Nicolas of Cusa (1401 - 1464)


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da Gama, Vasco (1769 - 1524)

Daguerre, Louis (1787 - 1851)

Dalen, Gustav (1869 - 1937) NP-Ph 1912

Dalmatin, Herman (1100 - 1160)

Darwin, Charles (1809 - 1882)

de Broglie, Louis (1892 - 1987)

Debye, Peter (1884 - 1966) NP-Ch 1936

Dedekind, Richard (1831 - 1916)

Dehmelt, Hans Georg (1922 - 2017) NP-Ph 1989

Democritus (460 - 371 BC)

Descartes, René (1596 - 1650)

Detre, Laslo (1906 - 1974)

Diesel, Rudolf (1858 - 1913)

Dirac, Paul (1902 - 1984) NP-Ph 1933

Döbereiner, Johann Wolfgang (1780 - 1849)

Donici, Nicolae (1874 - 1956)

Doppler, Christian (1803 - 1853)

Drais, Karl (1785 - 1851)

Dürer, Albrecht (1471 - 1528)

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Edison, Thomas Alva (1847 - 1931)

Ehrlich, Paul (1854 - 1915) NP-PM 1908

Eigen, Manfred (1927 - 2019) NP-Ch 1967

Einstein, Albert (1879 - 1955) NP-Ph 1921

Eötvos, Lorand (1848 - 1919)

Erxleben, Dorothea (1715 - 1762)

Euler, Leonhard (1707 - 1783)

Evershed, John (1864 - 1956)

Euler-Chelpin, Hans von (1873 - 1964) NP-Ch 1929

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Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel (1686 - 1736)

Faraday, Michael (1791 - 1867)

Ferguson, Harry (1884 - 1960)

Fermat, Pierre de (1607 - 1665)

Fermi, Enrico (1901 - 1954) NP-Ph 1938

Feynman, Richard (1918 - 1988) NP-Ph 1965

Finsen, Niels (1860 - 1904) NP-PM 1903

Flammarion, Camille (1842 - 1925)

Fleming, Alexander (1881 - 1955) NP-PM 1945

Flyorov, Georgy (1930 - 1990)

Forssmann, Werner (1904 - 1979) NP-PM 1956

Forster, Georg (1754 - 1794)

Foucault, Léon (1819 - 1868)

Fowler, William (1911 - 1995) NP-Ph 1983

Frank, Illia (1908 - 1990) NP-Ph 1958

Franklin, Benjamin (1706 - 1790)

Franck. James (1882 - 1964) NP-Ph 1925

Fraunhofer, Joseph (1787 - 1826)

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Gadolin, Johan (1760 - 1852)

Gagarin, Yuri (1961)

Galilei, Galileo (1564 - 1642)

Galois, Evariste (1811 - 1832)

Gauß, Carl Friedrich (1777 - 1855)

Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis (1778 - 1850)

Gell-Mann, Murray (1929)

Germain, Sophie (1776 - 1831)

Giorgi, Giovanni (1871 - 1950)

Gmelin, Leopold (1788 - 1853)

von Gmunden, Johannes (1380/84 - 1442)

Goddard, Robert (1882 - 1945)


Goeppert-Mayer, Maria (1906 - 1972) NP-Ph  1963

Gregory XIII (1502 - 1585)

Grimaldi, Francesco Maria (1616 - 1663)

Guericke, Otto von (1602 - 1686)

Guillaume, Charles Édouard (1861 - 1938) NP-Ph

Gutenberg, Johannes (1400 - 1468)

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Haas, Conrad (1509 - 1576)

Haber, Fritz (1868 - 1934) NP-Ch 1918

Hahn, Otto (1879 - 1968) NP-Ch 1944

Halley, Edmond (1656 - 1742)

Hamilton, William Rowan (1805 - 1865)

Hansteen, Christopher (1784 - 1873)

Harvey, William (1578 - 1657)

Heisenberg, Werner (1901 - 1976) NP-Ph 1932

Helmholtz, Hermann von (1821 - 1894)

Henlein, Peter (1479 - 1542)


Henry the Navigator (1394 - 1460)


Heraclitus of Ephesus (520 - 460 BC)

Hertz, Gustav (1887 - 1975) NP-Ph 1925

Hertz, Heinrich (1857 - 1894)

Hess, Viktor (1883 - 1964) NP-Ph 1936

Hevelius, Johannes (1611 - 1687)

von Hevesy, Georg Karl (1885 - 1966) NP-Ch 1943

Hewish, Antony (1924) NP-Ph

Heymans, Corneille (1892 - 1968) NP-PM 1938

Hipparchus (190 - 120 BC)

Hippocrates (460 - 370 BC)

Hirsch, Rahel (1870 - 1953)

Hörbiger, Hanns (1860 - 1931)

Holland, John Philip (1841 - 1914)

Hoff, Jacobus Henricus van't (1852 - 1911)

Hubble, Edwin (1889 - 1953)

Humboldt, Alexander von (1769 - 1859)

Huygens, Christiaan (1629 - 1695)

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Jähn, Sigmund (1937)

Jensen, Hans (1907 - 1973) NP-Ph 1963

Joffe, Abram (1880 - 1960)

Joliot-Curie, Frédéric (1900 - 1958) NP-Ch 1935

Jungius, Joachim (1587 - 1657)

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Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike (1853 - 1926) NP-Ph 1913

Kant, Immanuel (1724 - 1804)

Kapiza, Pjotr Leonidowitsch (1894 - 1984) NP-Ph 1978

Kaplan, Viktor (1876 - 1934)

Kekulé, August (1829 - 1896)

Kepler, Johannes (1571 - 1630)

Kirchhoff, Gustav (1824 - 1887)

Kitaibel, Paul (1757 - 1817)

von Klitzing, Klaus (1943) NP-Ph 1985

Klug, Aaron (1926) NP-Ch 1982

Koch, Robert (1843 - 1910)

Kopal, Zdenek (1914 - 1993)

Kopernikus, Nikolaus (1473 - 1543)

Korolev, Sergei (1907 - 1966)

Kossel, Albrecht (1853 - 1927) NP-PM 1910

Krogh, August (1874 - 1949) NP-PM 1920

Krylov, Aleksey (1863 - 1945)

Kuiper, Gerald Peter (1905 - 1973)

Kurchatov, Igor (1903 - 1960)

Kusch, Polykarp (1911 - 1993)
NP-Ph 1955

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La Condamine, Charles Marie de (1701 - 1774)

Lagrange, Joseph-Louis (1736 - 1813)

Lamb, Willis Eugene (1913 - 2008) NP-Ph 1955

Landau, Lew Dawidowitsch (1908 - 1968) NP-Ph 1962

Langen, Eugen (1833 - 1895)

Langevin, Paul (1872 - 1946)

Lansteiner, Karl (1868 - 1943) NP-PM 1930

Laue, Max von (1879 - 1960) NP-Ph 1914

Laveran, Alphonse (1845 - 1922) NP-PM 1907

Lavoisier, Antoine (1743 - 1794)

Lee, Tsung-Dao (1926) NP-Ph 1957

Leeuwenhoek, Antonie van (1632 - 1723)

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646 - 1716)

Lemaitre, George (1894 - 1966)

Lenard, Philipp (1862 - 1947) NP-Ph 1905

Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519)

Le Verrier (1811 - 1877)

Libby, William Frank (1908 - 1980) NP-Ch 1960

Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph (1742 - 1799)

Liebig, Justus von (1803 - 1873)

Lilienthal, Otto (1848 - 1896)

Lippmann, Gabriel (1845 - 1921) NP-Ph 1908

Lobachevsky, Nikolai (1792 - 1856)

Loewi, Otto (1873  - 1961) NP-PM 1936

Lomonosov, Mikhail Vasilyevich (1711 - 1765)

Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon (1853 - 1928) NP-Ph 1902

Loschmidt, Joseph (1821 - 1895)

Lyapunov, Alexander (1857 - 1918)

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Mach, Ernst (1838 - 1916)

Magellan, Ferdinand (1480 - 1521)

Majorana, Ettore (1906 - 1959)

Marco Polo (1254 - 1324)

Marconi, Guglielmo (1874 - 1937) NP-Ph 1909

Martini, Martino (1614 - 1661)

Maupertuis, Pierre Louis (1698 - 1759)

Maxwell, James Clerk (1831 - 1879)

Mayer Robert (1814 - 1878)

Meitner, Lise (1878 - 1968)

Melanchthon, Philipp (1497 - 1560)

Mendel, Gregor (1822 - 1884)

Mendeleev, Dmitri (1834 - 1907)

Mercator, Gerhard (1512 - 1594)

Michelson, Albert Abraham (1852 - 1931)
NP-Ph 1907

Milankovic, Milutin (1879 - 1958)

von Miller, Oskar (1855 - 1934)

Millikan, Robert Andrews (1868 - 1953) NP-Ph 1923

Minckelers, Jan Pieter (1748 - 1824)

Mitterhofer, Peter (1822 - 1893)

Moessbauer, Rudolf (1929 - 2011)

Moissan, Henri (1852 - 1907) NP-Ch 1906

Monod, Jacques (1910 - 1976)

Montgolfier brothers (1740-1810, 1745-1799)

Morse, Samuel (1791 - 1872)

Müller, Karl Alexander (1927) NP-Ph 1987

Müller, Franz-Joseph (1742 - 1925)

Musger, August (1868 - 1929)

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Nansen, Fridtjof (1861 - 1930)

Natta, Giulio (1903 - 1979) NP-Ch 1963

Nernst, Walther (1864 - 1941) NP-Ch 1920

Newton, Isaac (1643 - 1726)

Niépce, Joseph (1765 - 1833)

Nunes, Pedro (1502 - 1578)


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Oberth, Hermann (1894 - 1989)

Occhialini, Giuseppe (1907 - 1993)

Ohm, Georg Simon (1789 - 1854)

Ojeda, Alfonso de (1466 - 1515)

Onsager, Lars (1903-1976) NP-Ch 1968

Orsted, Hans Christian (1777 - 1851)

Ostwald, Wilhelm (1853 - 1932) NP-Ch 1909

Otto, Nicolaus (1832 - 1891)

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Pacinotti, Antonio (1841 - 1912)

Papin, Denis (1647 - 1712)

Paracelsus (1493 - 1541)

Paré, Ambroise (1510 - 1590)

Parsons, Charles (1854 - 1931)

Pascal, Blaise (1623 - 1662)

Pasteur, Louis (1822 - 1895)

Pauli, Wolfgang (1900 - 1958) NP-Ph 1945

Pauling, Linus (1901 - 1994) NP-Ph 1954

Penzias, Arno (1933) NP-Ph 1978

Perrin, Jean-Baptiste (1870 - 1942) NP-Ph 1926

Pettenkofer, Max von (1818 - 1901)

Picard, Auguste (1884 - 1962)

Pinzon, Martín Alonso (1441 - 1493)

Planck, Max (1858 - 1947) NP-Ph 1918

Planté, Gaston (1834 - 1889)

Poincaré, Henri (1854 - 1912)

Portal, Antoine (1742 - 1832)

Powell, Cecil (1903 - 1969) NP-Ph 1950

Praetorius, Johannes (1537 - 1616)

Pregl, Fritz (1869 - 1930) NP-Ch 1923

Priestley, Joseph (1733 - 1804)

Prigogine, Ilya (1917 - 2003) NP-Ch 1977

Prokhorov, Alexander (1916 - 2002) NP-Ph 1964

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Quetelet, Alphonse (1796 - 1874)

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Raman, Chandrasekhara Venkata (1888 - 1970) NP-Ph 1930

Ramanujan, Srinivasa (1887 - 1920)

Ramsay, William (1852 - 1916) NP-Ch 1904

Ramsey, Norman (1915 - 2011) NP-Ph 1989

Rayleigh (John William Strutt, 1842 - 1919) NP-Ph 1904

Regiomontanus (1436 - 1476)

Reis, Philipp (1834 - 1874)

Ricci, Matteo (1552 - 1610)

Richardson, Owen Willans (1879 - 1959) NP-Ph 1928

Richet, Charles (1850 - 1935) NP-PM 1913

Riese, Adam (1492 - 1559)

Rømer, Ole (1644 - 1710)

Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad (1845 - 1923) NP-Ph 1901

Ross, Ronald (1857 - 1932) NP-PM 1902

Ruska, Ernst (1906 - 1988) NP-Ph 1986

Rutherford, Ernest (1871 - 1937) NP-Ch 1908

Ryle, Martin (1918 - 1984) NP-Ph 1974

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Sakharov, Andrei (1921 - 1989)

Sauerbruch, Ferdinand (1875 - 1951)

Schickard, Wilhelm (1592 - 1635)

Schott, Otto (1851 - 1935)

Schrödinger, Erwin (1887 - 1961) NP-Ph 1933

Schuster, Johann Christoph (1759 - 1823)

Schwartz, Melvin (1932 - 2006) NP-Ph 1988

Secchi, Angelo (1818 - 1878)

Segner, Johann Andreas von (1704 - 1777)

Semmelweis, Ignaz (1818 - 1865)


Semyonov, Nikolay (1896 - 1986) NP-Ch 1956

Senefelder, Alois (1771 - 1834)

Shockley, William (1910 - 1989) NP-Ph 1956

Siemens, Werner von (1816 - 1892)

Sierpinski, Waclaw (1882 - 1969)

Slaby, Adolf (1849 - 1913)

Soddy, Frederick (1877 - 1956) NP-Ch 1921

Stark, Johannes (1874 - 1957) NP-Ph 1919

Stern, Otto (1888 - 1969) NP-Ph 1943

Stefan, Josef (1835 - 1893)

Steinberger, Jack (1921) NP-Ph 1988

Strassmann, Fritz (1902 - 1980)

Struve, Wilhelm (1793 - 1864)

Suess, Eduard (1831 - 1914)

Svedberg, Theodore (1884 - 1971) NP-Ch 1926

Szilard, Leo (1889 - 1964)

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Tesla, Nikola (1856 - 1943)

Thomas Aquinas (1125 - 1274)

Thomson, Joseph John (1856 - 1940) NP-Ph 1906

Ting, Samuel C.C. (1936) NP-Ph 1976

Tiselius, Arne (1902 - 1971) NP-Ch 1948

Tombaugh, Clyde (1906 - 1997)

Torricelli, Evangelista (1608 - 1647)

Townes, Charles Hard (1915 - 2015) NP-Ph 1964

Tscherenkow, Pawel (1904 - 1990) NP-Ph 1934

Tsiolkovski, Konstantin (1857 - 1935)

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Ulugh Beg (1394 - 1449)

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van't Hoff, Jacobus Henricus (1852 - 1911) NP-Ch 1901

van der Waals, Johannes Diderik (1837 - 1923) NP-Ph 1910

Verne, Jules (1828 - 1905)

Vesalius, Andreas (1514 - 1564)

Vespucci, Amerigo (1452 - 1512)

Virchow, Rudolf (1821 - 1902)

Volta, Allessandro (1745 - 1827)

Voltaire (1694 - 1778)

von Braun, Wernher (1912 - 1977)

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Waals, Johannes Diderik van der (1837 - 1923) NP-Ph 1910

Wallace, Alfred (1823 - 1913)

Wallach, Otto (1847 - 1931) NP-Ch 1910

Walton, Ernest (1903 - 1995) NP-Ph 1951

Warburg, Otto (1883 - 1970) NP-PM 1931

Watson-Watt (1892 - 1973)

Watt, James (1736 - 1819)

Wiechert, Emil (1861 - 1928)

Wieland, Heinrich Otto (1877 - 1957) NP-Ch 1927

Wien, Wilhelm (1864 - 1928) NP-Ph 1911

Willstätter, Richard Martin (1872  - 1942) NP-Ch 1915

Wilson, Robert Woodrow (1936) NP-Ph 1978

Wöhler, Friedrich (1800 - 1882)

Wright, Wilbur & Orville (1867-1912, 1871-1948)



Yang, Chen Ning (1922) NP-Ph 1957

Yukawa, Hideki (1907 - 1981) NP-Ph 1949



Zaremba, Stanislaw (1863 - 1942)

Zeeman, Pieter (1865 - 1943) NP-Ph 1902

Zeldowich (1914 - 1987)

Zeppelin, Ferdinand (1838 - 1917)

Zernike, Frits (1888 - 1966) NP-Ph 1953

Zhukovsky, Nikolay (1847 - 1921)

Ziegler, Karl (1898 - 1973) NP-Ch 1963

Zsigmondy, Richard (1865 - 1929) NP-Ph 1925

Zuse, Konrad (1910 - 1995)

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0. Fraunhofer Society


1. Metre Convention (1857)

2. Royal Astronomical Society

3. Academie des Sciences (France)

4. Max Planck Society

5. Deutsches Museum Munic

6. Urania-Observatory Berlin

7. German Electron Synchrotron (DESY)

8. CERN

9. ISS (Iternational Space Station)

10. Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory


Events

10. International Quiet Sun Years 1964/1965

11. International Quiet Sun Years 1964/1965

12. International Quiet Sun Years 1964/1965

13. International Year of Astronomy 2009

14. World Mathematical Year 2000

15. Total Solar Eclipse 1999

16. Nebra sky disk (discovered in 1999)

17. Sputnik 1 satellite (1957)

18. Lunik 3 (1959)

19. Voyager 1 and 2 (lauched 1977)

20. Radium (discovered 1898)

21. Ariane (rocket)

22. Gaia Spacecraft (lauched 2013)

23. Gravitational waves

24. Copernicus (Orbiting Astron.Observatory 3, 1972)

25. Appollo 11: first spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon (July 20, 1969)

26. Rosetta spacecraft


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Instruments

Vermessungsinstrumente

Calculating Machines

Sundials and hourglasses

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Web Links

Physics-Related Stamps

16 Briefmarken zum Thema "Physik"

List of Nobel laureates in Physics

List of Nobel laureates in Chemistry

Gesamtliste Mathematik auf Briefmarken

Briefmarkenjahrgänge von Deutscher (Bundes)post und Deutscher (Bundes)post Berlin

Briefmarkenjahrgänge und -serien der Deutschen Post der DDR von 1949 bis 1990

WikiTimbre - Encyclopédie du timbre en ligne


Astronomy and Cosmology in Stamps

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2019 J. Giesen

updated: 2019, Jul 12

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